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Important Events of China
Founding of New China:
MASS GATHERING AT PEKING

From our special correspondent
HONGKONG, OCT. 2, 1949

In a brief statement read at a mass rally held yesterday before one of the massive gateways to the Forbidden City in Peking, Mao Tse-tung, who on the previous day has been unanimously elected chairman fo the central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China, formally prochlained the inauguration of the new regime. It was an epoch-making moment in the history of Asia. Though not all of China is yet in the hands of the Communists, there can be no doubt that, for good or for evil, this is now the Government of nearly 500m. people, the largest single homogeneus racial group in the world.

Mao declared: “The people throughout China have been plunged into bitter sufferings and tribulations since the Chiang Kai-shek reactionary Government betrayed the father-land, conspired with imperialists, and launched a counter-revolutionary war. However, out People’s Liberation Army, supported by the people throughout the country, fighting heroically and selflessly to defent the territorial sovereignty of the fatherland, to protect the people’s lives and property, to relive the people of their sufferings, and to struggle for their rights, has eliminated the reactionary troops and overthrown the reactionary rule of the National Government. Now the war of the people’s liberation has been fundamentally won and the majority of the people throughout the country have been liberated.” The People’s Political Consultative Conference, representing the will of the Chinese people, had enacted the organic law of the central People’s Government, had elected officers and members of the central People’s Government Council, had proclaimed the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and had decided that Peking should be the capital of the new republic.

COUNCIL APPOINTMENTS

“The central People’s Government Council took office today in this capital and unanimously made the following decisions: To proclaim the formation of the central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China; to adopt the common programme of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference as the policy of the Government; to appoint Lin Po-chu from among the members of the Government Council, as secretary-general of the council, to appoint Chou En-lai as Premier of State Administration in the Council Affairs, to appoint Mao Tse-tung as chairman of the People’s Revolutionary Military Council, to appoint Chu Teh as commander-in-chief of the People’ s Liberation Army, to appoint Shen Chun-ju as Chief Justice of the Supreme People’s Court, and to appoint Lo Jung-huan as Procurator-General of the People’s Procurator-General’s Office, and to entrust them with the task of the early formation of the various organs of government. ”

Mao concluded “At the same time the central People’s Government Council decided to declare to the Governments of all other counties that this Government is the sole legal Government representing all the people of the People’s Republic of China.This Government is willing to establish diplomatic relations with any foreign Government which is willing to observe the principles of equality, mutual benefit and mutual respect of territorial integrity and sovereignty.”

The Communist New China news agency reports that about 200.000 people gathered to hear this historic pronouncement. All stood to attention when Mao hoisted the new flag of Communist China, five yellow stars on a red background, and the band played the new national anthem, “The March of the Volunteers.” Guns fired 28 salvos, which echoed through the city. After the pronouncement had been read there was a ceremonial parade been made uninhabitable, at which General Chu Teh took the salute. Units of the various branches of the armed forces, some equipped with up-to-date American artillery, tanks, and armoured cars captured from the Nationallists, took part in the march past, while fighters and bombers of the Communist air force flew in formation overhead. Fireworks and other demonstrations prolonged the celebrations well into the night. Some reports stated that this official inauguration of the new regime will be followed by three days celebrations and by the important Chinese national festival of the “double tenth,” October 10, which commemorates the first successful uprising against the Manchus.

Yesterday’s celebrations were attended by a Soviet cultural and educational mission of 43 members headed by Mr. Alexander Fadeyev, who, according to some Communist dispatches, had been accorded special ambassadorial rank by his Government for this occasion. The mission had previously been given an official welcome both at Mukden and on their arrival at Peking, many of the Chinese Communist leaders going to the station to meet them. So far as is known here no foregn representatives apart from the Russian attended the ceremonies in Peking.

NON-COMMUNISTS

At its final meeting on Friday the People’s Political Consultative Conference elected the members of the two bodies which will be, in effect, the two highest organs of State in Communist China. The first is the central People’s Government Council, which, according to Communist dispatches, “is vested with the power of exercising the State authority in the name of the People’s Republic of China.” In addition to the chairman and six vice-chairmen there are 56 members of the council, among whom are not only all the leading Communist generals and better-known civilians in the movement but also a number of non-Communists such as the former Nationalist general Fu Tso-yi, Chang Chih-chung, and Cheng Chien(the former Governor of Yunnan, now in Hongkong), General Lung Yun, the Singapore millionaire Tan Kah-kee, the Shanghai industrialist Chen Shu-tung, and representatives of both the Mongol and Sinkiang national minorities.

The second body elected on Friday was the so-called national Committee of the consultative Conference, which has been formed “to direct the work of the Chinese People’s Democratic Front and to make proposal and recommendations to the Government Council on vital affairs of State.” One hundred and eighty members from among the more than 600 delegates attending the conference were elected to this committee, 18 seats being left vacant for members representing areas of China still to be “liberated.”
          
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